Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, in his Paul: A Critical Life, put the Jerusalem Conference and the confrontation with Peter (Galatians 1 and 2) at a turning point in Paul’s ministry. Before this Paul had operated under the auspices of Jerusalem and Antioch. Afterwards he introduced himself as one not sent by or through human agency (Galatians), but as an apostle by the will of God (1 and 2 Corinthians) or a servant of Jesus Christ (Philippians and Romans). More controversially, he thought Paul turned into a radical antinomian after the Peter incident and sought to root out Torah observance as a requirement in his churches.
This came about historically as follows:
There were disturbances at Antioch in about the year 40 because of the threat by Caligula to desecrate the Temple. Christians got blamed. That is why the disciples were first called Christians at Antioch. Christian was a derogatory name used…
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